Autophagy

Inhibitory Selectivity

Autophagy Products

New Autophagy Products
Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1109

BI 2536

BI-2536 is a potent Plk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.83 nM in a cell-free assay. BI-2536 inhibits Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) with Kd of 37 nM and potently suppresses c-Myc expression. BI-2536 induces apoptosis and attenuates autophagy. Phase 2.

S6078New

ICCB-19 hydrochloride

ICCB-19 hydrochloride is an inhibitor of TNFRSF1A Associated Via Death Domain (TRADD) with IC50 of 1.12 μM and 2.01 μM for protecting Velcade-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and protecting RDA in MEFs, respectively. ICCB-19 indirectly inhibits Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). ICCB-19 effectively induces autophagy.

S5190New

Crizotinib hydrochloride

Crizotinib (PF-02341066) hydrochloride (Xalkori) inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Met and nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with IC50 of of 11 nM and 24 nM in cell-based assays, respectively. Crizotinib hydrochloride is also a potent ROS1 inhibitor with Ki less than 0.025 nM. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines.

S5971New

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed (LY231514, Alimta) is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT) with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pemetrexed induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S4484New

Trametinib DMSO solvate

Trametinib (GSK1120212, JTP-74057, Mekinist) DMSO solvate is a highly specific and potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.92 nM/1.8 nM in cell-free assay. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S4643New

KB-R7943 mesylate

KB-R7943 mesylate is a widely used inhibitor of the reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX(rev)) with IC50 of 5.7 μM. KB-R7943 mesylate promotes prostate cancer cell death by activating the JNK pathway and blocking autophagic flux.

S4895New

Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate

Nilotinib (AMN-107, Tasigna) hydrochloride monohydrate is a selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of Bcr-Abl with IC50 < 30 nM in Murine myeloid progenitor cells. Nilotinib induces autophagy through AMPK activition.

S3592New

4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA)

4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, Benzenebutyric acid) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and a key epigenetic inducer of anti-HCV hepatic hepcidin. 4-Phenylbutyric acid inhibits LPS-induced inflammation through regulating endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in acute lung injury models.

S6999New

Chloroquine (NSC-187208)

Chloroquine (NSC-187208, Aralen, CHQ, CQ) is an antimalarial drug and autophagy/lysosome inhibitor. Chloroquine also suppresses Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) protein expression. Chloroquine is highly effective agianst SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection with EC50 of 1.13 μM in Vero E6 cells. Chloroquine has anti-HIV-1 activity.

S1105

LY294002

LY294002 (SF 1101, NSC 697286) is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis.

S1092

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor)

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

S1102

U0126-EtOH

U0126-EtOH is a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 0.07 μM/0.06 μM in cell-free assays, 100-fold higher affinity for ΔN3-S218E/S222D MEK than PD98059. U0126 inhibits autophagy and mitophagy with antiviral activity.

S1460

SP600125

SP600125 (Nsc75890) is a broad-spectrum JNK inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 with IC50 of 40 nM, 40 nM and 90 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10-fold greater selectivity against MKK4, 25-fold greater selectivity against MKK3, MKK6, PKB, and PKCα, and 100-fold selectivity against ERK2, p38, Chk1, EGFR etc. SP600125 is also a broad‐spectrum inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases including Aurora kinase AFLT3 and TRKA with of IC50 of 60 nM, 90 nM and 70 nM. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.

S1113

GSK690693

GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. GSK690693 also potently inhibits AMPK and DAPK3 from the CAMK family with IC50 of 50 nM and 81 nM, respectively. GSK690693 affects Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) activity, robustly inhibits STING-dependent IRF3 activation. Phase 1.

S2758

Wortmannin (KY 12420)

Wortmannin (KY 12420, SL-2052, BRN 0067676, NSC 627609) is the first described PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 3 nM in a cell-free assay, with little selectivity within the PI3K family. Wortmannin blocks autophagosome formation and potently inhibits DNA-PK/ATM with IC50 of 16 nM and 150 nM in cell-free assays. Wortmannin also inhibits PLK1 activity.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S2767

3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

3-Methyladenine (3-MA, NSC 66389) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

S7046

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

S8037

Necrostatin-1

Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

S2775

Nocodazole (R17934)

Nocodazole (R17934, Oncodazole, NSC238159) is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, also inhibits Abl, Abl(E255K) and Abl(T315I) with IC50 of 0.21 μM, 0.53 μM and 0.64 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Nocodazole induces apoptosis.

S3042

Purmorphamine

Purmorphamine (Shh Signaling Antagonist VI), which directly binds and activates Smoothened, blocks BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to Smo with IC50 of ~ 1.5 μM in HEK293T cell and also is an inducer of osteoblast differentiation with EC50 of 1 μM. Purmorphamine can reduce both basal and induced autophagy.

S7033

GSK2656157

GSK2656157 is an ATP-competitive and highly selective inhibitor of PERK with IC50 of 0.9 nM in a cell-free assay, 500-fold greater against a panel of 300 kinases. GSK2656157 decreases apoptosis and inhibits excessive autophagy.

S1413

Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1)

Bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1) is a vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.44 nM. Bafilomycin A1 is found to inhibit autophagy while induces apoptosis.

S2930

Pifithrin-μ

Pifithrin-μ (NSC 303580, PFTμ, 2-Phenylethynesulfonamide) is a specific p53 inhibitor by reducing its affinity to Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and also inhibits HSP70 function and autophagy.

S7289

PFK15

PFK15 (PFK-015) is a potent and selective 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) inhibitor with IC50 of 207 nM.

S3233

Emetine hydrochloride

Emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669), a principal alkaloid extracted from the root of ipecac clinically used as an emetic and antiprotozoal drug, reduces HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors; HIF-1α and HIF-2α), PDK1, RhoA, Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) and BRD4. Emetine hydrochloride inhibits cellular autophagy and has anti-malarial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-amoebic effect.

S7885

SBI-0206965

SBI-0206965 is a highly selective autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 108 nM, about 7-fold selectivity over ULK2. SBI-0206965 inhibits autophagy and enhances apoptosis in human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells.

S8576

EAD1

EAD1 is a potent autophagy inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.8 μM in the BxPC3 cells. It has antiproliferative activities in lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

S8274

STO-609

STO-609 is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase(CaM-KK) that inhibits the activities of recombinant CaM-KKα and CaM-KKβ isoforms, with Ki values of 80 and 15 ng/ml, respectively, and also inhibits their autophosphorylation activities. STO-609 inhibits AMPKK activity and inhibits autophagy.

S8764

IITZ-01

IITZ-01 is a potent autophagy inhibitor, enhancing autophagosome accumulation but inhibiting autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function.

S6912

Vacuolin-1

Vacuolin-1 is a potent and cell-permeable inhibitor that blocks the Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes and prevents the release of lysosomal content without affecting the process of resealing. Vacuolin-1 is also a potent and selective PIKfyve inhibitor, and inhibits autophagy by impairing lysosomal maturation via PIKfyve inhibition.

S7888

Spautin-1

Spautin-1 is a potent and specific autophagy inhibitor, and inhibits the deubiquitinating activity of USP10 and USP13 with IC50 of ∼0.6-0.7 μM. Spautin-1 enhances apoptosis.

S7811

MHY1485

MHY1485 is a potent, and cell-permeable mTOR activator, and also potently inhibits autophagy.

S7423

KN-93 Phosphate

KN-93 Phosphate is a potent and specific inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) with Ki of 0.37 μM, no remarkable inhibitory effects on APK, PKC, MLCK or Ca2+-PDE activities. KN-93 attenuates CaMKII-induced autophagy.

S7948

MRT67307 HCl

MRT67307 is a potent and dual IKKϵ and TBK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 160 and 19 nM, respectively. MRT67307 potently inhibits ULK1 and ULK2 and blocks autophagy.

S8369

Lys05

Lys05 is a new lysosomal autophagy inhibitor which potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome of both cells and tumors, resulting in sustained inhibition of autophagy and tumor growth.

S7146

DMH1

DMH1 is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 107.9 nM for ALK2, exhibiting no inhibition on AMPK, ALK5, KDR (VEGFR-2) or PDGFR. DMH1 inhibits autophagy.

S7949

MRT68921 HCl

MRT68921 is a potent and dual autophagy kinase ULK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively.

S8744

PHY34

PHY34 is a late-stage autophagy inhibitor with nanomolar potency and significant antitumor efficacy as a single agent against HGSOC in vivo.

S5920

CA-5f

CA-5f is a potent late-stage macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor via inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

S8222

AS1842856

AS1842856 is a cell-permeable inhibitor that blocks the transcription activity of Foxo1 with IC50 of 33 nM. It could directly bind to the active Foxo1, but not the Ser256-phosphorylated form. AS1842856 suppresses autophagy.

S7682

SAR405

SAR405 is a low-molecular-mass kinase inhibitor of PIK3C3/Vps34 (KD 1.5 nM) showing high selectivity and not be active up to 10 μM on class I and class II PI3Ks as well as on mTOR. SAR405 prevents autophagy and synergizes with MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibition in tumor cells.

S7683

PIK-III

PIK-III (VPS34-IN2), which is a selective inhibitor of ​VPS34 enzymatic activity, inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3 and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. The IC50 values for VPS34 and PI(3)Kδ are 0.018 μM and 1.2 μM respectively.

S8793

ULK-101

ULK-101 is a potent and selective ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 values of 8.3 nM and 30 nM for ULK1 and ULK2, respectively.

S8527

ROC-325

ROC-325 is an orally available novel inhibitor of lysosomal-mediated autophagy which diminishes AML cell viability with the IC50 range of 0.7-2.2 μM.

S9424

Liensinine diperchlorate

Liensinine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits late-stage autophagy/mitophagy through blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. It is a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor.

S7751

VER155008

VER155008 (C07) is a potent Hsp70 family inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μM, 2.6 μM, and 2.6 μM in cell-free assays for HSP70, HSC70, and GRP78 (HSPA5, Bip), respectively, >100-fold selectivity over HSP90. VER155008 inhibits autophagy and causes reduced levels of HSP90 client proteins.

S6716

NSC 185058

NSC185058 inhibits ATG4B, the lipidation of LC3B, and autophagy without affecting the MTOR or PtdIns3K pathways.

S9150

Daurisoline

Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.

S7381

Pepstatin A

Pepstatin A (Pepstatin) is a potent aspartic protease inhibitor, and also inhibits HIV replication. Pepstatin A is also an inhibitor of cathepsins D and cathepsins E. Pepstatin A inhibits autophagy by suppressing lysosomal proteases.

S1078

MK-2206 2HCl

MK-2206 2HCl is a highly selective inhibitor of Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 8 nM/12 nM/65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibitory activities against 250 other protein kinases observed. MK-2206 2HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1002

ABT-737

ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic inhibitor of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w with EC50 of 78.7 nM, 30.3 nM and 197.8 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibition observed against Mcl-1, Bcl-B or Bfl-1. ABT-737 induces mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1049

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with Ki of 140 nM in a cell-free assay, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK.

S2619

MG-132

MG132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent cell-permeable proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 0.1 μM and 1.2 μM for the inhibition of proteasome and calpain, respectively. MG132 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

S6301New

MPP+ iodide

MPP+ iodide (N-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Iodide), the metabolite of a neurotoxin MPTP, causes symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) in animal models by selectively destroying dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. MPP+ induces autophagic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. MPP+ induces dopamine transporter (DAT) externalization in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, but internalization of serotonin transporter (SERT) in serotonergic (5-HT) neurons.

S6395New

CA77.1

CA77.1 (CA) is a potent, brain-penetrant and orally active activator of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) for the treament of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

S9860New

BC1618

BC1618 is an orally active Fbxo48 inhibitor that stimulates adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (Ampk)-dependent signaling. BC1618 promotes mitochondrial fission, facilitates autophagy and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity.

S4613New

Sodium Fluoride

Sodium fluoride (NaF) induces apoptosis and autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

S3569New

Spermidine

Spermidine is a natural polyamine that stimulates cytoprotective macroautophagy/autophagy.

S4476New

PCNA-I1

PCNA-I1 is a selective inhibitor of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a potential anticancer target). PCNA-I1 selectively binds to PCNA trimers with Kd of ~0.2 to 0.4 μM. PCNA-I1 inhibits the growth of tumor cells of various tissue types with IC50 of ~0.2 μM. PCNA-I1 induces DNA damage and apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. PCNA-I1 also induces autophagy in PC-3 cells.

S6957New

β-Elemene

β-Elemene ((-)-β-Elemene, Levo-β-elemene) is a sesquiterpene compound extracted from the herb Curcuma Rhizoma with antitumor activities. β-elemene can inhibit cell proliferation, arrest the cell cycle, and induce cell apoptosis or autophagy.

S1555

AZD8055

AZD8055 is a novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 nM in MDA-MB-468 cells with excellent selectivity (∼1,000-fold) against PI3K isoforms and ATM/DNA-PK. AZD8055 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and also induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1038

PI-103

PI-103 is a multi-targeted PI3K inhibitor for p110α/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 2 nM/3 nM/3 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to mTOR/DNA-PK with IC50 of 30 nM/23 nM. PI-103 induces apoptosis in murine T-cell Lymphoma.

S1129

SRT1720 HCl

SRT1720 HCl is a selective SIRT1 activator with EC50 of 0.16 μM in a cell-free assay, but is >230-fold less potent for SIRT2 and SIRT3. SRT1720 induces autophagy.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S1075

SB216763

SB216763 is a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50 of 34.3 nM for GSK-3α and equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3β. SB216763 activates autophagy.

S1080

SU11274

SU11274 (PKI-SU11274) is a selective Met (c-Met) inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM in cell-free assays, no effects on PGDFRβ, EGFR or Tie2. SU11274 induces autophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

S7110

(+)-JQ1

(+)-JQ1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50 of 77 nM/33 nM for BRD4(1/2) in cell-free assays, binding to all bromodomains of the BET family, but not to bromodomains outside the BET family. (+)-JQ1 suppresses cell proliferation via inducing autophagy. (+)-JQ1 inhibits the expression of Nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 3 (NSD3) target genes.

S2827

Torin 1

Torin 1 is a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2 with IC50 of 2 nM/10 nM in cell-free assays; exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3K.

S2624

OSI-027

OSI-027 (ASP4786, CERC 006, AEVI-006) is a selective and potent dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with IC50 of 22 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, and more than 100-fold selectivity observed for mTOR than PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ or DNA-PK. OSI-027 induces autophagy in cancer cells. Phase 1.

S1590

TWS119

TWS119 is a GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 30 nM in a cell-free assay; capable of inducing neuronal differentiation and may be useful to stem cell biology. GSK-3β inhibition triggers autophagy.

S2843

BI-D1870

BI-D1870 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of S6 ribosome for RSK1/2/3/4 with IC50 of 31 nM/24 nM/18 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10- to 100-fold selectivity for RSK than MST2, GSK-3β, MARK3, CK1 and Aurora B. BI-D1870 exhibits anticancer attributes including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy.

S2635

CCT128930

CCT128930 is a potent, ATP-competitive and selective inhibitor of Akt2 with IC50 of 6 nM in a cell-free assay, 28-fold greater selectivity for Akt2 than the closely related PKA kinase. CCT128930 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and autophagy independent of Akt inhibition. High dose of CCT128930 triggers cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

S2163

PF-4708671

PF-4708671 is a cell-permeable inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1 isoform) with Ki/IC50 of 20 nM/160 nM in cell-free assays, 400-fold greater selectivity for S6K1 than S6K2, and 4- and >20-fold selectivity for S6K1 than MSK1 and RSK1/2, respectively. PF-4708671 induces autophagy. First S6K1-specific inhibitor to be reported.

S2817

Torin 2

Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1582

H 89 2HCl

H 89 2HCl is a potent PKA inhibitor with Ki of 48 nM in a cell-free assay, 10-fold selective for PKA than PKG,500-fold greater selectivity than PKC, MLCK, calmodulin kinase II and casein kinase I/II. H 89 2HCl induces autophagy.

S2770

MK-5108 (VX-689)

MK-5108 (VX-689) is a highly selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 0.064 nM in a cell-free assay and is 220- and 190-fold more selective for Aurora A than Aurora B/C, while it inhibits TrkA with less than 100-fold selectivity. MK-5108 (VX-689) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S2449

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362)

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol, Colforsin) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl (BML-275, Compound C) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2812

(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid

(R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) acetic acid, the R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 with Ki of 0.32 μM, 0.48 μM and 0.18 μM in cell-free assays; does not inhibit BIR3 domain and BID. AT-101 simultaneously triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy. Phase 2.

S2929

Pifithrin-α (PFTα) HBr

Pifithrin-α is an inhibitor of p53, inhibiting p53-dependent transactivation of p53-responsive genes. Pifithrin-α is also a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

S7164

GSK343

GSK343 is a potent and selective EZH2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, showing 60 fold selectivity against EZH1, and >1000 fold selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. GSK343 induces autophagy.

S8006

BIX 01294

BIX01294 is an inhibitor of G9a histone methyltransferase with IC50 of 2.7 μM in a cell-free assay, reduces H3K9me2 of bulk histones, also weakly inhibits GLP (primarily H3K9me3), no significant activity observed at other histone methyltransferases. BIX01294 induces autophagy. BIX01294 also inhibits H3K36 methylation by oncoproteins NSD1, NSD2 and NSD3.

S8059

Nutlin-3a

Nutlin-3a ((-)-Nutlin-3), the active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, inhibits the p53/MDM2 interaction with IC50 of 90 nM in a cell-free assay. Nutlin-3a induces autophagy and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

S1219

YM201636

YM201636 is a selective PIKfyve inhibitor with IC50 of 33 nM, less potent to p110α and insensitive to Fabl (yeast orthologue). YM-201636 suppresses the growth of liver cancer via the induction of autophagy.